Ecology of Pseudotropheus livingstonii
 
Main Ref. Ribbink, A.J., B.A. Marsh, A.C. Marsh, A.C. Ribbink and B.J. Sharp, 1983
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Pseudotropheus livingstonii may be found.
Remarks Fund in mixed schools of adults and subadults usually between 15-60 fish (max of 200 fish). Fish found in rocky ridges are most likely to be territorial, e.g. those found in Ponyemba at 4-12 m were males, about 2 m apart, highly aggressive intraspecifically and defended areas usually at base of rocks and centered around sand-scraped nests. Associated with these males were numerous females and non-territorial males which remained 2-3 m above the males in the water column, apparently feeding on plankton.

Substrate

Substrate
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Ribbink, A.J., B.A. Marsh, A.C. Marsh, A.C. Ribbink and B.J. Sharp, 1983
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Ribbink, A.J., B.A. Marsh, A.C. Marsh, A.C. Ribbink and B.J. Sharp, 1983
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.68 0.14 3.10 0.25 Troph of juv./adults from 1 study.
Ref. Ribbink, A.J., B.A. Marsh, A.C. Marsh, A.C. Ribbink and B.J. Sharp, 1983
From individual food items
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Palomares, Maria Lourdes D. on 06.18.92
Modified by Sa-a, Pascualita on 12.03.00
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