Ecology of Raja maderensis
 
Main Ref. McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Raja maderensis may be found.
Remarks Feeds on all kinds of benthic animals.

Substrate

Substrate
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Stehmann, M. and D.L. Bürkel, 1984
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Stehmann, M. and D.L. Bürkel, 1984
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 3.50 0.37 Tentative trophic level derived from 1 + troph of a single food item
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Sta. Iglesia, Drina on 11.09.00
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