Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Scophthalmus maximus
photo by Quantz, G.

Family:  Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Max. size:  100 cm SL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 25 kg; max. reported age: 25 years
Environment:  demersal; brackish; marine; depth range 20 - 70 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.
Diagnosis:  Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).
Biology:  Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (124695)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:  Occurs along the coast of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia, except the Bothnian Sea; also in the Ahvenanmaa Archipelago.

Entered by: Froese, Rainer - 17.10.90
Modified by: Bailly, Nicolas - 10.01.11
Checked by: Froese, Rainer - 24.05.94

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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