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References Used for Fishes of Scophthalmidae
( Turbots )
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[ n = 313 ] 
Alegre, M., J. Lleonart and J. Veny, 1992 Espècies pesqueres d'interès comercial. Nomenclatura oficial catalana. Departament de Cultura, Generalitat Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.
Ali, M.A. and H.-J. Wagner, 1975 Visual pigments: phylogeny and ecology. p. 481-516. In A.A. Ali (ed.) Vision in fishes. New approaches to research. Plenum Press, New York.
Alonso-Allende, J.M., A. Vazquez, E. Labarta, J.R. Fuertes, G. Perez-Gandaras and J. Touron, 1978 Análisis de la pesquería demersal de Galicia. Resultados de la campaña Galicia III (Junio 1976). Res. Exp. Clent. B/O Cornide 7:93-130.
Amori, G., F.M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini and G. Vicini, 1993 Vertebrata. In A. Minelli, S. Ruffo and S. La Posta (eds.) Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana, 110. Calderini, Bologna, 83 p.
Andriyashev, A.P. and N.V. Chernova, 1995 Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123.
Anonymous, 1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the Intitut fur Seefischerei (ISH). BIOLAB Forschungsinstitut, Hohenwestedt, Germany.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of CSIC. CSIC, Spain.
Anonymous, 2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
Anonymous, 1994 Welsh names of animals and plants: I Vertebrates: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. p.17-26. In W.B.L. Evans (ed.) Cyfres enwan (creaduriaid a phlauhigion: I creaduriaid asgwrn-cefn pysgod, amffibiaid, ymlusgiaid, adar a mamaliaid. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd.
Anonymous, 1993 Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Southern Shelf Demersal Stocks. ICES Doc. C.M. 1993/Assess:3.
Anonymous, 1997 Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. MRAC, Tervuren, Belgium.
Anonymous, 1995 Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Southern Shelf Demersal Stocks. ICES Doc. C.M. 1996/Assess:5.
Anonymous, 2000 Systematisk liste over norske fisk registert pr. 1997.
Anonymous, 2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
Anonymous, 2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
Anonymous, 1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Anonymous, 2000 The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Ichthyology and Herpetology, Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH).
Anonymous, 2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
Anonymous, 1997 Species kept in the Kiel Aquarium in August 1997. Unpublished. 4 p.
Anonymous, 1999 Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000.
Arias, A. and P. Drake, 1990 Estados juveniles de la ictiofauna en las caños de las salinas de la bahia de Cadiz. Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia. CSIC.
Arkhipchuk, V.V., 1999 Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.
Arneri, E., S. Colella and G. Giannetti, 2001 Age determination and growth of turbot and brill in the Adriatic Sea: reversal of the seasonal pattern of otolith zone formation. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 17:256-261.
Arnett, R.T.P. and J. Whelan, 2001 Comparing the diet of cod (Gadus morhua) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): an investigation of secondary ingestion. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81(2):365-366.
ASIH, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 1984 Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. Spec. Publ. Am. Soc. Ichthyol. Herpetol. 1:ix, 760 p.
Azevedo, M.F.C., C. Oliveira, B.G. Pardo, P. Martinez and F. Foresti, 2007 Cytogenetic characterization of six species of flatfishes with comments to karyotype differentiation patterns in Pleuronectiformes (Teleostei). J. Fish Biol. 70(Suppl.A):1-15.
Bailly, N. and B. Chanet, 2010 Scophthalmus Rafinesque, 1810: The valid generic name for the turbot, S. maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Pleuronectiformes: Scophthalmidae]. Cybium 34(3):257-261.
Bañon, R., D. Villegas-Ríos, A. Serrano, G. Mucientes and J.C. Arronte, 2010 Marine fishes from Galicia (NW Spain): an updated checklist. Zootaxa 2667: 1-27.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Bat, L., Y. Erdem, S. Ustaoğlu, Ö Yardım and H. Hüseyin Satılmış, 2005 A study on the fishes of the Central Black Sea coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 11:291-296.
Bauchot, M.-L., 1987 Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome.
Bedford, B.C., L.E. Woolner and B.W. Jones, 1986 Length-weight relationships for commercial fish species and conversion factors for various presentations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Directorate of Fisheries Research. Fisheries Research Data Report No. 10.
Bello, G. and E. Rizzi, 1987 On the growth of the four-spotted scaldfish, Lepidorhombus boscii, from the Southern Adriatic. FAO Fish. Rep. 394:142-146.
Bertolini, F., U. D'Ancona, E. Padoa Montalenti, S. Ranzi, L. Sanzo, A. Sparta, E. Tortonese and M. Vialli, 1956 Uova, larve e stadi giovanili di Teleostei. Fauna Flora Golfo Napoli Monogr. 38:1-1064.
Bertrand, J., 2050 Les populations ichthyologiques démersales du plateau/SRM MO. Méditerranée 5(9):
Bigelow, H.B. and W.W. Welsh, 1925 Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. W.S. Bur. Fish. 40:1-567.
Bilecenoglu, M., Taskavak E., S. Mater and M. Kaya, 2002 Checklist of the marine fishes of Turkey. Zootaxa (113):1-194.
Bílge, G., S. Yapici, H. Fíliíz and H. Cerím, 2014 Weight-length relationshions for 103 fish species from the southern Aegean sea, Turkey. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 44(3):263-269.
Biología Marina, 2004 Nomina de especies comerciales de Chile. Biología Marina website, August 2004.
Blake, R.W., L.M. Chatters and P. Domenici, 1995 Turning radius of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) in unsteady swimming manoeuvres. J. Fish Biol. 46(3):536-538.
Blanquer, A., J.-P. Alayse, O. Berrada-Rkhami and P. Berrebi, 1992 Allozyme variation in turbot (Psetta maxima) and brill (Scophthalmus rhombus) (Osteichthyes, Pleuronectoformes, Scophthalmidae) throughout their range in Europe. J. Fish Biol. 41(5):725-736.
Borges, T.C., S. Olim and K. Erzini, 2003 Weight-length relationship for fish species discarded in commercial fisheries of the Algarve (southern Portugal). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 19(6):394-396.
Bounhiol, J.P., 1905 Experimental studies in aquatic respiration. Respiration of fish. Bull. Sci. France Belg. 39:277-305.
Bouza, C., L. Sanchez and P. Martinez, 1994 Karyotypic characterization of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with conventional , flourochrome and restriction endonuclease-banding techniques. Mar. Biol. 120(4):609-613.
Bowman, R.E., C.E. Stillwell, W.L. Michaels and M.D. Grosslein, 2000 Food of northwest Atlantic fishes and two common species of squid. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE 155, 138 p.
Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen, 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p.
Brouza, C., S. Vandamme, M. Hermida, S. Cabaleiro, F. Volckaert and P. Martinez, 2014 Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). AquaTrace species leaflet (March 2014). Knowledge review was carried out under the FP7 project AquaTrace / WP2.
Brown, J.A.G., A. Jones and A.J. Matty, 1984 Oxygen metabolism of farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). 1. The influence of fish size and water temperature on metabolic rate. Aquaculture 36:273-281.
Bruce, J.R., J.S. Colman and N.S. Jones, 1963 Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Memoir No. 36. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.
Buckel, J.A., M.J. Fogarty and D.O. Conover, 1999 Foraging habits of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, on the U.S. east coast continental shelf. Fish. Bull. 97:758-775.
Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung, 2003 Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Retrieved 17 June 2003, from
Carl, H., 2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
Castilho, R., M.T. Dinis and K. Erzini, 1993 Age and growth of megrin Lepidorhombus boscii Risso of the Portuguese contintental coast. Fish. Res. 16(4):339-346.
Cattrijsse, A. and H. Hampel, 2000 Life history and habitat use tables. Final Report. Subproject 1 - "Nursery Function Westerschelde". University of Gent, Dept. of Biology, Marine Biology Section. 30 p.
Chanet, B., 1998 L'asymétrie de vertèbres caudales chez les Scophthalmidae (Pleuronectiformes) est-elle une autapomorphie?. Cybium 22(4):405-412.
Chanet, B. and M. Desoutter, 2000 First western Atlantic record of Zeugopterus punctatus (Pleuronectiformes: Scophthalmidae) from off the Newfoundland Coast (Canada). Cybium 24(2):203-204.
Chang, S., P.L. Berrien, D.L. Johnson and W.W. Morse, 1999 Essential fish habitat source document: windowpane, Scophthalmus aquosus, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-137, 24 pp.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Science (CAFS), 2007 Database of genetic resources of aquatic organisms in China (as of January 2007). Chinese Academy of Fishery Science.
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
Çiçek, E., R. Fricke and S.S. Birecikligil, 2015 Freshwater fishes of Turkey: a revised and updated annotated checklist. BIHAREAN BIOLOGIST 9(2):141-157.
Coad, B.W., 1995 Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore.
Coad, B.W., 1995 Freshwater fishes of Iran. Acta Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. Brno. 29(1):1-64.
Colton, J.B. Jr. and R.R. Marak, 1969 Guide for identifying the common planktonic fish eggs and larvae of continental shelf waters, Cape Sable to Bloc Island. U.S. Bur. Commer. Fish. Biol. Lab. Ref. 69-9. 43 p.
Costa, F., 1991 Atlante dei pesci dei mari italiani. Gruppo Ugo Mursia Editore S.p.A. Milano, Italy. 438 p.
Coughlan, J.P., A.K. Imsland, P.T. Galvin, R.D. Fitzgerald, G. Naevdal and T.F. Cross, 1998 Microsatellite DNA variation in wild populations and farmed strains of turbot from Ireland and Norway: a preliminary study. J. Fish Biol. 52:916-922.
Coull, K.A., A.S. Jermyn, A.W. Newton, G.I. Henderson and W.B. Hall, 1989 Length/weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North Atlantic. Scottish Fish. Res. Rep. (43):80 p.
Crec'hriou, R., R. Neveu and P. Lenfant, 2013 Length-weight relationship of main commercial fishes from the French Catalan coast. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 29:1191-1192.
Crespo, J., J. Gajate and R. Ponce, 2001 Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain. 414 p.
D'Onghia, G., D. Lloris, C.-Y. Politou, L. Sion and J. Dokos, 2004 New records of deep-water teleost fishes in the Balearic Sea and Ionian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Sci. Mar. 68(Suppl. 1):171-183.
Dartnall, H.J.A. and J.N. Lythgoe, 1965 The spectral clustering of visual pigments. Vision Res. 5:81-100.
de Sola Simarro, L.G., 2000 Scientific and common names for commercial species in the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean) fish markets (Malaga, Almeria). Pers. comm.
Demestre, M., P. Sánchez and P. Abelló, 2000 Demersal fish assemblages and habitat characteristics on the continental shelf and upper slope of the north-western Mediterranean. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 80(6):981-988.
Deniel, C., 1990 Comparative study of growth of flatfishes on the west coast of Brittany. J. Fish Biol. 37(1):149-166.
Denton, E.J. and F.J. Warren, 1956 Visual pigments of deep-sea fish. Nature 4541:1059.
Desoutter, M., F. Chapleau, T.A. Munroe, B. Chanet and M. Beaunier, 2001 Catalogue critique des types de poissons du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Ordre des Pleuronectiformes. Cybium 25(4):299-368.
Deval, M.C., 2002 Common names of marine fishes of Turkey. Unpublished report.
Devauchelle, N., Y. Letty and M. Quere, 1986 Experimental units for incubation and larval rearing with special reference to four marine fish species. Aquaculture 58:297-304.
Dhora, Dh., 2010 Regjistër I specieve të faunës së Shqipërisë 2010. Shkodër: Camaj-Pipa. 208 p.
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Djabali, F., B. Brahmi and M. Mammasse, 1993 Poissons des Côtes Algériennes. Pelagos, Bulletin de I'Ismal (Bulletin de l'Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Aménagement du Littoral). Numéro special 215 p.
Dolgov, A.V., 2000 New data on distribution of megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (Walbaum, 1792) (Scophthalmidae) in northeastern Atlantic. Submitted to J. Ichthyol.
Dolgov, A.V., 2000 New data on composition and distribution of the Barents Sea ichthyofauna. ICES CM2000/Mini:12, 12p.
Dorel, D., 1986 Poissons de l'Atlantique nord-est relations taille-poids. Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer. Nantes, France. 165 p.
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Ecomarg Project, 2006 Biodiversity: Cantabrian Sea, Galician Shelf and Le Danois Bank. Ecomarg Project (
Economidis, P.S., 1973 Catalogue of the fishes of Greece. Reprinted from Hellenic Oceanology and Limnology, Praktika of the Inst. of Ocean. and Fishing Research, vol. 11 (1972).
Economidis, P.S., 2001 Common names of Hellenic marine fishes. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
Economidis, P.S. and E. Koutrakis, 2001 Common names of comercially important Hellenic marine organisms. Aristotle University, Unpublished Technical Report.
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Erzini, K., 1991 A compilation of data on variability in length-age in marine fishes. Fisheries Stock Assessment, Title XII, Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Rhode Island. Working paper 77, 36p.
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2013 Catalog of fishes. Updated internet version of 02 July 2013. Catalog databases of CAS cited in FishBase (website).
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998 Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p.
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2000 Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of February 2000. Catalog databases as made available on the Internet at Feb. 20, 2000.
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Fahay, M., 1983 Guide to the early stages of marine fishes occuring in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Cape Hatteras to the Southern Scotian Shelf. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci. 4:1-423.
FAO, 1992 FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 70: 1990. FAO Fish. Ser. 38:647 p.
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FAO-FIES, 2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
FAO-FIES, 2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
FAO-FIES, 2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
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ICES, 2018 Four-spot megrim (Lepidorhombus boscii) in divisions 8.c and 9.a (southern Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian waters East). ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort.
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ICES, 2018 Megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) in divisions 8.c and 9.a (Cantabrian Sea and Atlantic Iberian waters). ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort.
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