Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Esociformes
(Pikes and mudminnows) > Esocidae
Etymology: Esox: From Greek, isox and also related with the Celtic root, eog, ehawc = salmon (Ref. 45335); lucius: lucius which is supposedly the latin name for this species (Ref. 1998).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 39.9, range 25 - 63 cm
soft rays: 10 - 22;
Vertebrae: 57 - 65. Diagnosed from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the combination of the following characters: long snout; large mouth; dorsal fin origin slightly in front of anal origin; and lateral line with 105-148 scales (Ref. 59043). Distinguished by its long, flat, 'duck-bill' snout; its large mouth with many large, sharp teeth; and the rearward position of its dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers present only as patches of sharp teeth on gill arches; lateral line notched posteriorly (Ref. 27547). Dorsal located far to the rear; anal located under and arising a little behind dorsal; pectorals low on body, base under opercle; pelvic fins low on body; paired fins rounded, paddle-shaped (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
Spawners move inshore or upstream to the marsh areas to spawn (Ref. 27547). Generally, spawning occurs during the day. The sexes pair and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males. They swim through and over the vegetation in water usually less than 17.8 cm, releasing eggs and sperm simultaneously at irregular intervals (Ref. 1998). Eggs are deposited in flooded areas and on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days (Ref. 59043). Only 5 to 60 eggs ae released at a time (Ref. 27547). This act is repeated every few minutes for up to several hours, after which the fish rest for some time before resuming. During the resting period, both male and female may take new mates, or they may continue together for several days until all eggs are extruded. Spawned-out adults may stay on the spawning grounds for as long as 14 weeks, but most leave within 6 (Ref. 27547).
Crossman, E.J., 1996. Taxonomy and distribution. p. 1-11. In J.F. Craig (ed.) Pike biology and exploration. Chapman and Hall, London. 298 p. (Ref. 26373)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5157 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00395 - 0.00505), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.8 (5.7 - 8.3) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.07-0.3; tm=2-3; tmax=30; Fec=2,000-600,000).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.5 [17.1, 95.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.545 [0.256, 1.159] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [15.8, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.632 [0.302, 1.317] g/100g ; Selenium = 54.2 [15.4, 212.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.3 [6.2, 68.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.56 [0.88, 3.02] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.