Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 33°S, 98°W - 31°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and the Bahamas to São Paulo, Brazil (Ref. 57756).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
soft rays: 12. Small individuals yellowish green with a black spot, edged in light red, behind eye; a small black spot at rear base of dorsal fin. Large adult males are dull green, the centers of the scales with a dull orange red spot; caudal fin with a median longitudinal and upper and lower diagonal converging blue-edged rose bands (Ref. 13442).
Commonly found in clear seagrass beds; uncommon on reefs or muddy bays (Ref. 9710). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Generally of no interest to fisheries because of its small average size (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Diandric. Forms leks during breeding (Ref. 55367). Length at sex change = 8.3 cm TL (Ref. 55367).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 704 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00616 - 0.01481), b=3.08 (2.95 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .