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Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1860)

Black grouper
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Mycteroperca bonaci
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Mycteroperca: Greek, mykter, -eros = nose + Greek, perke = perch (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Poey.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 ? - 250 m (Ref. 89707).   熱帶; 33°N - 27°S, 95°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Massachusetts, USA to southern Brazil, including the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Adults are unknown from the northeastern coast of the USA.
西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國麻薩諸塞州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣南部與加勒比海。 成魚是未知的從美國的東北方海岸。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 67.7, range 47 - 95.1 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 70.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大體重: 100.0 kg (Ref. 26340)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 11 - 13. Distinguished by the following characteristics: Side body has rectangular dark gray blotches. Outer third of second dorsal, anal and caudal fins black. Edge of preopercle smooth, without pronounced lobe at angle; 17-24 total gill rakers (Ref. 26938); depth of body 3.3-3.5 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.8 times in SL; evenly rounded preopercle, without distinct notch or lobe at the angle; subequal sizes of anterior and posterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
側邊身體有矩形的深灰色斑塊。 第二背鰭,臀鰭與尾鰭黑色的外面第三個。 前鰓蓋骨的邊緣平滑的, 角落沒有明顯的葉; 17-24個總鰓耙.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A solitary species (Ref. 26340) inhabiting rocky and coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Adults feed primarily on fishes; juveniles mainly on crustaceans. Oviparous (Ref. 205). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). Forms spawning aggregations (Ref. 55367). Common but difficult to approach (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh and its flesh is of excellent quality.

一種獨居性種 (參考文獻 26340) 居住於岩石與珊瑚礁.(參考文獻 9710) 成魚主要捕食魚; 稚魚主要吃甲殼動物。 卵生的.(參考文獻 205) 一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體.(參考文獻 55367) 產卵群集的表格.(參考文獻 55367) 普遍的但是困難的接近.(參考文獻 9710) 在市場上銷售生鮮地了,而且它的肉是有優良品質的。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). According to a study in Campeche Bank, females changed sex between 85.5 and 125.0 cm FL, with median length of 103.3 cm FL. At 114.5 cm FL, 50% of the females in the sample had transformed into males. Age at sex change = 15.5 years (Ref. 55367).西大西洋: 百慕達群島與美國麻薩諸塞州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣南部與加勒比海。 成魚是未知的從美國的東北方海岸。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) (A4bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 31172)





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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生態毒物學
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孕卵數

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00706 - 0.01233), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.16; tmax=14; Fec=500,000).
Prior r = 0.49, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.