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Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay, 1883)

Mangrove whipray
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Image of Urogymnus granulatus (Mangrove whipray)
Urogymnus granulatus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Urogymnus: Greek, oura = tail + Greek, gymnos = naked (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Macleay.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater rifbewoner; diepteverspreiding 1 - 85 m (Ref. 9840).   Tropical; 26°N - 28°S, 44°E - 163°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to Oceania, distribution considered patchy but probably widespread.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 141 cm WD mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 58048)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Has white spots and a white tail.

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found in mangrove areas, also over sand or sand and rubble in lagoons near reefs to depth of 85 m on the continental shelf (Ref. 9840). Feeds on small fishes, bottom dwelling crustaceans, and large infauna (Ref. 9840). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), with histotrophy. Caught regularly, but in low numbers, by demersal tangle net and bottom trawl fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Fully developed young, size at birth 28 cm (Ref. 37816, Ref.58048).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : McEachran, John | Medewerkers

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Kwetsbaar, zie IUCN Rode Lijst (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 May 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Traumatogenic





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.5 - 28.8, mean 27.7 (based on 584 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00510 - 0.04100), b=3.03 (2.78 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (Assuming fecundity<100).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Low.