Mullus surmuletus, Surmullet : fisheries, gamefish

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Mullus surmuletus Linnaeus, 1758

Surmullet
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Mullus surmuletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Mullus surmuletus (Surmullet)
Mullus surmuletus
Picture by Patzner, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Mullidae (Goatfishes)
Etymology: Mullus: Latin, mullus = soft (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 409 m (Ref. 56504).   亞熱帶的; 62°N - 14°N, 19°W - 42°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Western Norway, English Channel (rare in North Sea) to Dakar, Senegal and the Canary Islands, including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
東大西洋: 西方挪威, 到達喀爾, 塞內加爾與加納利群島的英倫海峽 (稀有的在北海), 包括地中海與黑海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 16.1, range 15 - 26 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397); common length : 25.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4845); 最大体重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 92286)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Head is less steep. Barbels longer than pectoral fin. Body with longitudinal red and brown stripes. First dorsal fin with dark markings (Ref. 35388).
头部是比较不陡峭。 触须长度超过胸鳍。 身体有纵向的红色与褐色斑纹。 第一背鳍有深色斑纹。 (参考文献 35388)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 07313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes. Spawning occurs from May to July, eggs and larvae are pelagic (Ref. 4845). Marketed fresh and frozen for steaming, pan-frying, broiling and baking (Ref. 9988).

生活于断掉的与粗燥的底部也在深度小于 100 公尺发现在沙子与软质底部上面了。 来自 5- 的深度范围 60 公尺 (参考文献 07313) 与从 305-409 公尺在爱奥尼亚的海洋东部中.(参考文献 56504) 吃底栖的生物例如虾与片脚类动物,多毛类动物,软件动物与底栖的鱼。 从五月到七月, 卵产卵,而且仔鱼是大洋性的。 (参考文献 4845) 在市场上销售生鲜和冷冻为蒸, 煎的, 烧与烤.(参考文献 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

A determinate spawner (Ref. 41706).東大西洋: 西方挪威, 到達喀爾, 塞內加爾與加納利群島的英倫海峽 (稀有的在北海), 包括地中海與黑海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Randall, John E. | 合作者

Ben-Tuvia, A., 1990. Mullidae. p. 827-829. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7313)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 14 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
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照片
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声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7 - 16.1, mean 10.2 (based on 549 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00831 - 0.01001), b=3.10 (3.07 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.1 (2.6 - 5.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 37 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.7; tm=2; tmax=10).
Prior r = 0.85, 95% CL = 0.56 - 1.28, Based on 12 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.