Scophthalmus maximus, Turbot : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Scophthalmus maximus
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Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes(Γένος, Είδη) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά); Υφάλμυρο βενθικό(ς); ωκεανόδρομο(ς) (Ref. 51243); εύρος βάθους 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); μεγ. αναφερόμενη ηλικία: 25 έτη (Ref. 32766)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής | Συνεργάτες

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)


CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

αλιεία: Εμπορικό(ά); Υδατοκαλλιέργειες: Εμπορικό(ά); αλιεία αναψυχής: ναί; Ενυδρείο: Δημόσια ενυδρεία
FAO - Υδατοκαλλιέργειες: Παραγωγή, species profile; αλιεία: landings; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Η θάλασσα γύρω μας

Εργαλεία

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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Γένος, Είδη | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Υδατοκαλλιέργειες: Παραγωγή, species profile; αλιεία: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Εθνικές βάσεις δεδομένων | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Δημόσια ενυδρεία | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Δέντρο Ζωής | Wikipedia: Go, αναζήτηση | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 °C (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00909 - 0.01385), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.7 (3.6 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Μεσαίο(α), ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού 1,4 - 4,4 έτη (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 9 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 70.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.173 [0.071, 0.645] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.2, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.592 [0.259, 1.369] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [5.7, 61.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.5, 54.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.225 [0.107, 0.696] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.