Scophthalmus maximus, Turbot : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Scophthalmus maximus
Picture by Quantz, G.

Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes(род, виды) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

; морской; солоноватоводный демерсальный; мигрирует в океане (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 25 годы (Ref. 32766)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор | соавторы

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 123251)


CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Угроза для людей

  Harmless





Использование человеком

рыболовство: коммерческий; аквакультура (рыбоводство): коммерческий; объект спортивного рыболовства: да; аквариум: общественные аквариумы
FAO - аквакультура (рыбоводство): production, Видовой профиль; рыболовство: landings; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

инструменты

Специальные отчеты

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ресурсы в Интернет

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Проверить FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: род, виды | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - аквакультура (рыбоводство): production, Видовой профиль; рыболовство: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Геном, Нуклеотид | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | национальные базы данных | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | общественные аквариумы | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Вперёд, поиск | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 °C (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00909 - 0.01385), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.7 (3.6 - 5.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 24 growth studies.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 120179):  средний (среднего размера), минимальное время удвоения популяции 1.4-4.4 года (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.74, Based on 9 stock assessments.
Уязвимость (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 30.3 [13.5, 70.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.173 [0.071, 0.645] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.2, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.592 [0.259, 1.369] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [5.7, 61.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.1 [2.5, 54.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.225 [0.107, 0.696] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.