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Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Image of Trachurus trachurus (Atlantic horse mackerel)
Trachurus trachurus
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klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   Subtropical; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL jantan/; (Ref. 3397); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 9; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 30-36; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | mitra

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  Rentan, lihat daftar merah IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi; Ikan buruan: ya; umpan: usually
FAO(Perikanan: production, profail spesis; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 (based on 165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00758 - 0.00912), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.