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Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Trachurus trachurus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   亞熱帶的; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.
東大西洋: 冰島 (參考文獻 4233) 到塞內加爾, 包括地中海與馬爾馬拉海海洋 (參考文獻 4233), 與黑海。 也大西洋西部,印度洋與西太平洋.(參考文獻 27584)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3397); 最大体重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 9; 背的软条 (总数): 30-36; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).
蓝绿色的,灰色的或黑色的上方, 下面银白色的; 鳃盖有黑色的斑点。 (参考文献 3197) 侧面的鳞片高的而且龙骨。 鳃盖具有一个明显的黑色斑点。 第一背鳍高的.(参考文献 35388)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

在沿岸区域中形成大群鱼群,砂质底部的地方。 吃鱼,甲壳动物与头足类动物。 生鲜使用,烟熏了, 罐装及冷冻; 能被油炸, 火烤而且烧烤。 (参考文献 9988) 分开成二分枝了: 西方的分枝与北海分枝。 西方的分枝在初春在带从 Biscay 到爱尔兰产卵, 向北与向东移动到挪威南部与北海北部。 北海分枝在夏天在北海南部产卵, 回游到中央的北海,史卡基拉克海域与 Kattegat。 雌性生下 140,000个卵, 孵化成 5个 mm 长仔鱼.(参考文献 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

東大西洋: 冰島 (參考文獻 4233) 到塞內加爾, 包括地中海與馬爾馬拉海海洋 (參考文獻 4233), 與黑海。 也大西洋西部,印度洋與西太平洋.(參考文獻 27584)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | 合作者

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 诱饵: usually
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

工具

特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 (based on 165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00758 - 0.00912), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.