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Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Atlantic horse mackerel
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Trachurus trachurus
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (strålfeniga fiskar) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; havsvandrande (Ref. 51243); djupintervall 0 - 1050 m (Ref. 54256), usually 100 - 200 m (Ref. 54256).   Subtropical; 67°N - 38°S, 26°W - 42°E

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, round the coast to Maputo.

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 23.9, range 21 - 30 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3197); common length : 22.0 cm FL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3397); publicerad maxvikt: 2.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 9; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 30-36; Taggstrålar i analfenan 3; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 24 - 32. Bluish green, grey or black above, silvery white below; opercle with black spot (Ref. 3197). Lateral scales tall and keeled. Gill cover with a distinct black spot. First dorsal fin tall (Ref. 35388).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Adults form large schools in coastal areas with sandy substrate. They feed on fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Are batch spawners (Ref. 51846). Females lay 140,000 eggs, which hatch into 5mm long larvae (Ref. 35388). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988). Divided into two stocks: West stock and North Sea stock. West stock spawns in a belt from the Biscay to Ireland in early spring, migrates north and eastwards to southern Norway and northern North Sea. North Sea stock spawns in the southern North Sea in summer, migrates to central North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat.

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Medarbetare

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., 1986. Carangidae. p. 815-844. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 4233)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Sårbar, se IUCNs rödlista (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 May 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: kommersiellt viktig; sportfisk: ja; bete: usually
FAO(fiskeri: produktion, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ytterligare information

Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationella databaser | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, sök) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.6 - 16.6, mean 13.3 (based on 165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00758 - 0.00912), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 69278):  Mellan, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 1,4-4,4 år (K=0.12-0.16; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=70,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.31 - 0.72, Based on 11 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.