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(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Pellonula: Latin, pellis = skin + Latin, nullus = no one (Ref. 45335); leonensis: Named for D.M. Norman, in gratitude (Ref. 103176). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau; anadromus (ruaya dari laut ke air tawar) (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 17°N - 5°S, 18°W - 24°E (Ref. 26213)
Africa: Lagoons, lakes and lower and upper courses of West African rivers (Ref. 188, 2849, 81269), from Senegal River to Sanaga River (Ref. 2244). Also in lagoons and lower parts of coastal rivers from Cameroon to Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 2244, 81631), including a record in the Léfini River (Ref. 88782).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 9.3 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 57961)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 13-19; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 16 - 22. Diagnosis: Pellonula leonensis is characterised by having the first prepelvic scute being as large as the following ones lacking ascending arms, located behind the pectoral-fin bases; also characteristic are the inward-curving premaxillary teeth (Ref. 2244, 2849, 81269, 81631). It resembles Pellonula vorax, which has larger and straighter teeth, often pointing forward, and scutes before pectoral fin bases (Ref. 188). Absence of large canine teeth in upper jaw distinguishes it from Odaxothrissa and also Cynothrissa; Microthrissa species are deep-bodied and have much more slender maxilla (Ref. 188).
Found chiefly in rivers and streams, but also in lakes, reservoirs and lagoons. Apparently able to enter brackish and seawater bodies. Adults form schools. Mainly nocturnal. They feed on terrestrial and aquatic insects, also on ostracods, entomostracans and fish larvae (Ref. 2245). Breed from September to July in Lake Volta.
Gourène, G. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Révision du genre Pellonula des eaux douces africaines (Pisces: Clupeidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(3):213-225. (Ref. 2244)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; umpan: occasionally
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 27.9, mean 26.7 (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00786 - 0.01058), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .