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Maculabatis toshi (Whitley, 1939)

Black-spotted whipray
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Maculabatis toshi
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Urogymninae
  More on author: Whitley.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien demersaal; diepteverspreiding 10 - 140 m (Ref. 6871).   Deep-water; 8°S - 30°S, 130°E - 155°E (Ref. 114953)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Western Pacific: Australia and Papua New Guinea. This species has been misidentified by most ichthyologists as a color form of Himantura uarnak (Ref. 6871). Also Ref. 114953.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.0 cm WD mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 58048)

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Demersal on soft bottoms on the continental shelf at depths of 10-140m (Ref.58048). Juveniles (20-22 cm WD) are free swimming. Feeds on prawns, small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9840). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common by-catch of bottom trawl and beach seine fisheries in the Arafura Sea. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Born at 20-22 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : McEachran, John | Medewerkers

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 12 May 2015

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.5 - 28.2, mean 27.2 (based on 255 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00606 - 0.04338), b=3.00 (2.76 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (Assuming fecundity<100).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Low.