分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(屬, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings)
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens)
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 85 m (Ref. 188). 溫帶; 55°N - 35°N, 42°E - 58°E (Ref. 188)
Europe: Caspian Sea from where adults ascend Volga (only few fish enter Ural and Terek) to spawn. Earlier reached upriver up to Kama and Oka system. Migration now blocked by Volgograd dam. May have formed land-lock populations in Volga reservoirs.
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?, range 32 - 44 cm
Max length : 52.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); common length : 40.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大體重: 1.2 kg (Ref. 56523); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 56523)
背棘 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. Total gill rakers 59 to 155 (as in A. caspia), thick, coarse and shorter than gill filaments in some, long, thin and equal to or longer than gill filaments in others (i.e. A. kessleri volgensis). Teeth well developed in both jaws. Other Caspian shads have less than 50 gill rakers, except A. caspia which is deep-bodied.
身體相當延長, 更多像鯡魚一樣的 '超過像非魚類一樣的'. 總鰓耙 59 到 155(當在 A. caspia 中), 厚的﹐粗糙的與短於鰓絲在一些﹐長的﹐和細的而且等於或者在其它裡面的長度超過鰓絲.(也就是 A. kessleri volgensis) 雙顎內的齒發展良好的。 其他的里海非魚類有少於 50個鰓耙, 除了 A. caspia 以外是身體縱深。
Pelagic at sea, found in a wide variety of habitats. Migrates to middle reaches of large rivers, spawning close to shores in main channel and in almost still water bodies such as river bays and eddies and flood plains, at 4-5 years. Enters rivers with unripe gonads. Some spawn 2-4 seasons with most females dying after spawning. Spawners appear along the coast in March to April, entering rivers April to May when temperature reach about 9°C, peaking at 12-15°C. Duration of spawning originally lasting 30-50 days; it starts in may to August when temperature rises above 15°C and lasts as long as it remains at 15-23°C; it is most intensive between 4-10 p.m. Eggs are bathypelagic. Spent individuals return back to the sea to feed. In autumn, the fish move to the southern part of the sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to the sea or estuarine during the first summer until maturity (Ref. 59043). Feeds chiefly on small fishes, less frequently on insect larvae and crustaceans (the latter though being the main food for A. kessleri volgensis) (Ref. 10432). Two subspecies known. The flesh of A. k. kessleri is said to be the tastiest of all Caspian clupeids owing to its high fat content, averaging 18.9% by weight before the spawning period, diminishing to about 1.5% after spawning (Ref. 10432). Impoundment of main rivers significantly reduced available spawning sites and migration routes; heavy overfishing may have caused all population decline during the first decades of teh 20th century. Most spawning grounds were upriver of Volga and now are no longer accessible (Ref. 59043).
主要捕食小魚，較不常吃昆蟲幼生與甲殼動物。 (後者雖然作為 A. kessleri volgensis 的主要食物) 在春天 (三月或者四月, 但是有時早在二月或者甚至一月) 向北迴游, 顯然地主要地沿著海岸西部。 進入窩瓦河之內大個體大規模的迴游開始於水溫是大約 9 °C,在 12 °-15 的溫度達到一個高峰 ° C, 而且停止在大約 22個 ° C.(參考文獻 10432) 從五月中旬到八月在河中產卵, 一些在下面的範圍或甚至三角洲中, 其它遠達 500個公里上游。 在夏末與秋天幼魚降河。 知道的二個亞種。 A. k 的肉。 kessleri 據說所有里海的鯡魚的最好吃的由於它的高脂的含量, 在產卵期之前平均重量的 18.9%, 減少在產卵之後到大約 1.5%.(參考文獻 10432) 卵是深海區的。 (參考文獻 59043)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Spawns in rivers. Some enter with ripe gonads and spawn in the lower reaches or even delta (A. kessleri volgensis), others enter unripe and reach as much as 500 km upstream. The young descend in late summer and autumn.前蘇聯與亞洲: 裡海。
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00576 - 0.01379), b=3.05 (2.92 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-5; Fec=135,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .