分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - 85 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). 溫帶; 0°C - ; 55°N - 35°N, 42°E - 58°E (Ref. 188)
Europe: Caspian Sea from where adults ascend Volga (only few fish enter Ural and Terek) to spawn. Earlier reached upriver up to Kama and Oka system. Migration now blocked by Volgograd dam. May have formed land-lock populations in Volga reservoirs.
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?, range 32 - 44 cm
Max length : 52.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); common length : 40.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大体重: 1.2 kg (Ref. 56523); 最大年龄: 8 年 (Ref. 56523)
背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. Total gill rakers 59 to 155 (as in A. caspia), thick, coarse and shorter than gill filaments in some, long, thin and equal to or longer than gill filaments in others (i.e. A. kessleri volgensis). Teeth well developed in both jaws. Other Caspian shads have less than 50 gill rakers, except A. caspia which is deep-bodied.
身体相当延长, 更多像鲱鱼一样的 '超过像非鱼类一样的'. 总鳃耙 59 到 155(当在 A. caspia 中), 厚的，粗糙的与短于鳃丝在一些，长的，和细的而且等于或者在其它里面的长度超过鳃丝.(也就是 A. kessleri volgensis) 双颚内的齿发展良好的。 其他的里海非鱼类有少于 50个鳃耙, 除了 A. caspia 以外是身体纵深。
Pelagic at sea, found in a wide variety of habitats. Migrates to middle reaches of large rivers, spawning close to shores in main channel and in almost still water bodies such as river bays and eddies and flood plains, at 4-5 years. Enters rivers with unripe gonads. Some spawn 2-4 seasons with most females dying after spawning. Spawners appear along the coast in March to April, entering rivers April to May when temperature reach about 9°C, peaking at 12-15°C. Duration of spawning originally lasting 30-50 days; it starts in may to August when temperature rises above 15°C and lasts as long as it remains at 15-23°C; it is most intensive between 4-10 p.m. Eggs are bathypelagic. Spent individuals return back to the sea to feed. In autumn, the fish move to the southern part of the sea to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to the sea or estuarine during the first summer until maturity (Ref. 59043). Feeds chiefly on small fishes, less frequently on insect larvae and crustaceans (the latter though being the main food for A. kessleri volgensis) (Ref. 10432). Two subspecies known. The flesh of A. k. kessleri is said to be the tastiest of all Caspian clupeids owing to its high fat content, averaging 18.9% by weight before the spawning period, diminishing to about 1.5% after spawning (Ref. 10432). Impoundment of main rivers significantly reduced available spawning sites and migration routes; heavy overfishing may have caused all population decline during the first decades of teh 20th century. Most spawning grounds were upriver of Volga and now are no longer accessible (Ref. 59043).
主要捕食小鱼，较不常吃昆虫幼生与甲壳动物。 (后者虽然作为 A. kessleri volgensis 的主要食物) 在春天 (三月或者四月, 但是有时早在二月或者甚至一月) 向北回游, 显然地主要地沿着海岸西部。 进入窝瓦河之内大个体大规模的回游开始于水温是大约 9 °C,在 12 °-15 的温度达到一个高峰 ° C, 而且停止在大约 22个 ° C.(参考文献 10432) 从五月中旬到八月在河中产卵, 一些在下面的范围或甚至三角洲中, 其它远达 500个公里上游。 在夏末与秋天幼鱼降河。 知道的二个亚种。 A. k 的肉。 kessleri 据说所有里海的鲱鱼的最好吃的由于它的高脂的含量, 在产卵期之前平均重量的 18.9%, 减少在产卵之后到大约 1.5%.(参考文献 10432)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Spawns in rivers. Some enter with ripe gonads and spawn in the lower reaches or even delta (A. kessleri volgensis), others enter unripe and reach as much as 500 km upstream. The young descend in late summer and autumn.前蘇聯與亞洲: 裡海。
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00540 - 0.01343), b=3.06 (2.93 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-5; Fec=135,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .