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Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bowdich, 1825)

Bonga shad
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Ethmalosa fimbriata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bonga shad)
Ethmalosa fimbriata
Picture by Durand, J.-D.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Dorosomatinae
Etymology: Ethmalosa: Greek, ethmos, -ou = sieve, also the ethmoides bone + Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - ? m (Ref. 54436), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 54436).   熱帶; 25°N - 8°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54436)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: Eastern central Atlantic Ocean, from Dakhla in Western Sahara southward to Lobito Bay in Angola (Ref. 188, 5286, 81269, 81631), occasionally entering freshwater (Ref. 3509). Reports from Cape Verde Islands are based on an erroneous type locality for Clupea fimbriata by Bowdich (1825) which was followed by later authors (Ref. 188, 5286).
中東大西洋: 被對應到 25 °C 年度等溫線的最北與最南的極限的西撒哈拉的達赫拉到至少安哥拉的洛比托; 矮小的族群在貝南的瑙固維湖存在。 維德角記錄以錯誤的模式標本產地為依據為 Bowdich 的 篩鯡〔Ethmalosa fimbriata〕 - 跟隨著較後的命名者了。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 17.0  range ? - 18.5 cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1989); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 187); 最大體重: 1.0 kg (Ref. 1989)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 16-19; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 19 - 23; 脊椎骨: 42 - 44. Diagnosis: Ethmalosa fimbriata is distinguished from other clupeids by the presence of a median notch on the upper jaw, into which tip of lower jaw fits (Ref. 188, 81269). A faint dark spot behind gill cover, sometimes followed by others; dorsal fin tip black; caudal fin deep chrome yellow; golden tints on body (Ref. 188). Ethmalosa fimbriata resembles Sardinella aurita, Sardinella rouxi and especially Sardinella maderensis, but these are more slender, have a rounded upper jaw which is not notched and the upper gillrakers are not bent upward like an elbow (Ref. 188).
上頜有明顯的中央凹槽, 進入那一個之內下頜的頂端適合。 下鰓耙長的﹐細且多, 大約 3 倍長於鰓絲; 上面的鰓耙彎曲銳利向上, V 形的。 尾鰭深的鉻, 頂端長而尖的。 一個模糊的深色斑點在後鰓蓋;(有時跟隨著其它) 背鰭頂端黑色; 在身體上的金色光澤。 鱗甲: 16-19 腹鰭前的,10-13 後。 在側線列 37-42 中的鱗片.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Ethmalosa fimbriata is found in fairly shallow coastal waters, lagoons and estuaries, and sometimes also in lower courses of coastal rivers, even more than 300 km up rivers (Ref. 187, 188, 81269, 81631). It feeds principally on phytoplankton, chiefly diatoms, filtered by the very fine gillraker sieve (Ref. 187, 188, 3166). It breeds throughout the year in waters of salinities 3.5-38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas; spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers (Ref. 188). The largest fisheries are in Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Nigeria and Cameroon, mainly in the dry season (Ref. 188).

出現於近岸水域,潟湖與超過 300 公里從河口向上 (例如甘比亞河). 濾食浮游植物, 主要地矽藻。 全年繁殖在鹽度 3.5-38 ppt 的水域中, 在至少一些區域中但是有峰巔。 產卵在海中, 在河口與河中。 吃浮游植物, 主要地矽藻。 在市場上銷售生鮮地了, 也煙燻了而且乾製了。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Breeds all year in waters of salinities 3.5 to 38 ppt, but with peaks in at least some areas, becoming progressively later to south. Spawns in the sea, in estuaries and in rivers.中東大西洋: 被對應到 25 °C 年度等溫線的最北與最南的極限的西撒哈拉的達赫拉到至少安哥拉的洛比托; 矮小的族群在貝南的瑙固維湖存在。 維德角記錄以錯誤的模式標本產地為依據為 Bowdich 的 篩鯡〔Ethmalosa fimbriata〕 - 跟隨著較後的命名者了。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 May 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 實驗的
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周邊海洋


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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.2 - 27.9, mean 26.4 (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00822 - 0.01109), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  高度, 族群倍增時間少於 15個月 (K=0.25-0.36; tm=1; Fec=16,000).
Prior r = 0.93, 95% CL = 0.61 - 1.39, Based on 5 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.