You can sponsor this page

Lethrinus mahsena (Forsskål, 1775)

Sky emperor
Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Lethrinus mahsena (Sky emperor)
Lethrinus mahsena
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino associati a barriera corallina; non migratori; distribuzione batimetrica 2 - 100 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 28°N - 26°S, 32°E - 82°E

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Red Sea and East Africa to Sri Lanka. References to this species from the Central Pacific probably refer to Lethrinus atkinsoni.

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2295); common length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2295); Età massima riportata: 27 anni (Ref. 42001)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 10; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 9; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 8. Body color is yellow to greenish-blue, becoming lighter ventrally; usually with nine or ten dusky yellow-green or brown bars. The head is purplish gray, sometimes with a red blotch on the nape. A red bar is at the base of pectoral fin, sometimes extending broadly below and above the pectoral fin base to the edge of the operculum. The base of the upper and sometimes lower rays of pectoral fin is red. The base and tips of the pelvic fins are often red. The membranes of the dorsal fin is red (sometimes restricted to the base of the fins). The anal fin is whitish with the membranes between the forward rays often red. The caudal fin, especially the tips is reddish.

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Found over reef areas and adjacent sandy and seagrass areas (Ref. 30573, 41878). Feeds mainly on echinoderms (most frequently sea urchins), crustaceans and fishes; mollusks, tunicates, sponges, polychaetes and other worms are consumed in lesser quantities. A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367). In most areas of the Red Sea, it is considered an excellent food fish but in certain areas of the Indian Ocean it may have an unpleasant 'coral' smell and taste (Ref. 2295, 11888). Utilized fresh for broiling and baking (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Sex change was found to commonly occur between the ages of 5 and 6 years (Ref. 2295). A diandric species (Ref. 55367). Length and age at sex change occur at 32 cm TL and 16 yrs, respectively (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Endangered (EN) (A2bd); Date assessed: 28 June 2018

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesca: elevato interesse commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
FAO(pesca: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

Download XML

Fonti Internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.4 - 29.2, mean 27.5 (based on 406 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00836 - 0.02177), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278):  Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.10-0.30; tm=3; tmax=27; Fec=26,700).
Prior r = 0.50, 95% CL = 0.33 - 0.75, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.