Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Pseudotropheus: In honour of Hans J. Mayland, German ictiologist (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 8.0 - 9.0; dH range: 12 - 20; depth range 2 - 50 m. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 13°S - 15°S
Africa: Lake Malawi (Ref. 119458), common in the southeastern and southwestern arms of the lake (Ref. 5684).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5684)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 17 - 19;
soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: This species is distinguished from all other members in Pseudotropheus, except P. crabro, P. demasoni, and P. saulosi, by the presence of five or fewer vertical bars below the dorsal fin; most Pseudotropheus species either have no bars or have greater than five below the dorsal fin (Ref. 119458). It is distinguished from P. crabro, P. demasoni, and P. saulosi by a pale yellow to hyaline dorsal fin vs. dorsal fin heavily pigmented with black (Ref. 119458).
Lives mainly over sand where it finds refuge in the empty shells of the gastropod, Lanistes nyassanus. Also found in intermediate habitats and rarely over rocks. Usually territorial over gastropod shells. When found away from its shell, it is usually solitary or in small groups of less than 5 individuals. Feeds from sand, taking epipelic algae (Ref. 6256).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Females are mouthbrooders.
Stauffer, J.R. Jr., A.F. Konings and T.M. Ryan, 2016. Redescription of Pseudotropheus livingstonii and Pseudotropheus elegans from Lake Malawi, Africa. Zootaxa 4154(2):169-178. (Ref. 119458)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00684 - 0.03200), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .