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Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Thresher
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Image of Alopias vulpinus (Thresher)
Alopias vulpinus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) > Alopiidae (Thresher sharks)
Etymology: Alopias: Greek, alopex = fox (Ref. 45335);  vulpinus: Named comes from the Latin 'vulpes' meaning fox (Ref. 6885).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 650 m (Ref. 106604), usually 0 - 200 m (Ref. 55168).   Subtropical; 74°N - 58°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 54279)

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 6871, 58085). Population considered reduced (R) in the US Atlantic waters; lower risk/conservation dependent (LR/CD) in US Pacific waters; data deficient (DD) in the rest of Atlantic and rest of Pacific (Ref. 12451). Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 303.0, range 226 - 400 cm
Max length : 573 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 106604); 549.0 cm TL (female); common length : 450 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5217); peso máx. Publicado: 348.0 kg (Ref. 40637); Idade máx. registada: 25 anos (Ref. 81241)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 0. A large thresher with relatively small eyes, curved, narrow-tipped pectoral fins, a narrow-tipped caudal fin, and a conspicuous white patch over the pectoral fin bases (Ref. 5578). Second dorsal origin well behind the rear tip of the pelvic fin (Ref. 559). Upper lobe of caudal fin very long and strap-like, about as long as or longer than length of rest of shark; lower lobe short but well developed (Ref. 13570). Brown, grey, blue-grey, or blackish on back and underside of snout, lighter on sides and abruptly white below; a white area extends from the abdomen over the pectoral-fin bases; pectoral-, pelvic-, and dorsal fins blackish, white dots sometimes present on pectoral-, pelvic-, and caudal- fin tips (Ref. 13570).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Coastal over continental and insular shelves and epipelagic far from land (Ref. 30573, 43278, 58302). Oceanic although most abundant near land, pelagic at 1-366 m (Ref. 58302). Young often close inshore and in shallow bays (Ref. 5578). Feeds on schooling fishes (including mackerels, bluefishes, clupeids, needlefishes, lancetfishes and lanternfishes), squid, octopi, pelagic crustaceans, and rarely seabirds (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother (Ref. 43278, 50449). Uses its long caudal fin to bunch up and stun prey (Ref. 2850). Spatial and depth segregation by sex in northwestern Indian Ocean populations (Ref. 247). A few attacks on boats are doubtfully attributed to this species, but it is otherwise apparently harmless to humans, though the size of adults of this species command respect (Ref. 247). May cause damage to fishing gear (Ref. 6885). Valued for its meat, liver, hide, and fins; utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked, and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on the ova produced by the mother after the yolk sac is absorbed (oophagy) (Ref. 50449), 2 to 4 young in a litter (usually 2) (Ref. 247). Size at birth 114-150 cm (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Colaboradores

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Vulnerável, ver o Livro Vermelho da IUCN (VU) (A2bd+3bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)


Ameaça para o homem

  Harmless (Ref. 247)





Utilização humana

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; peixe desportivo: sim
FAO(pescarias: produção, perfil da espécie; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Nomes comuns
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Predadores
Ecotoxicologia
Reprodução
Maturidade
Desova
Agregação para desova
Fecundidade
Ovos
Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Idade/Tamanho
Crescimento
Comprimento-peso
Comprimento-comprimento
Frequência de comprimento
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larvas
Dinâmica larvar
Recrutamento
Abundância
Referências
Aquacultura
Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequência dos alelos
Hereditariedade
Doenças
Processamento
Mass conversion
Colaboradores
Fotografias
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Velocidade
Tipo de natação
Área branquial
Outras referências
Cérebros
Visão

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

Descarregue XML

Fontes da internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.6 - 28.2, mean 23.3 (based on 8352 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00358 - 0.01934), b=2.86 (2.66 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 69278):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (K=0.1; tm=5-7; tmax=19; Fec=2-4).
Prior r = 0.05, 95% CL = 0.01 - 0.18, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   High.