Torpedo panthera, Panther electric ray

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Torpedo panthera Olfers, 1831

Panther electric ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Torpedo panthera   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo panthera (Panther electric ray)
Torpedo panthera
Picture by Field, R.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien demersaal; diepteverspreiding 1 - 350 m (Ref. 58488).   Tropical; 30°N - 11°N, 34°E - 85°E (Ref. 114953)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) and Red Sea. Reports from other parts of the western Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) probably refer to a different species.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 30573)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 0; Wervels: 98 - 102. Disc-width shorter than its length, width and length about 1,60 to 1,80 times in total length; dorsal fins more or less rounded, its base 1,25 times in its length (Ref. 39215).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Found on coral reefs; as well as mud or sandy bottoms, from shallow water to a depth of 100 m (Ref. 30573, Ref. 114953). Mainly feeds on invertebrates and small reef fishes (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males reaches maturity at 28 cm TL (Ref. 114953).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Carvalho, Marcelo | Medewerkers

Michael, S.W., 1993. Reef sharks and rays of the world. A guide to their identification, behavior, and ecology. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California. 107 p. (Ref. 12951)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Onvoldoende gegevens (DD) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.5 - 26.3, mean 23.4 (based on 224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01549 (0.00726 - 0.03306), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.6   ±0.8 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  zeer laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd meer dan 14 jaar (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .