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Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758

European perch
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Native range
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Perca fluviatilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Perca fluviatilis (European perch)
Perca fluviatilis
Picture by McDowall, R.M.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) 鱸科 (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Perca: Greek, perke = perch, a fish without identificaction (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9988), usually 3 - 4 m (Ref. 55947).   溫帶; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 74°N - 38°N, 91°W - 168°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eurasia: throughout Europe to northernmost extremity of Scandinavia, except Iberian Peninsula, central Italy, and Adriatic basin; Aegean Sea basin in Matriza and from Struma to Aliakmon drainages; Aral Sea basin; Siberia in rivers draining the Arctic Ocean eastward to Kolyma. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
在歐洲與西伯利亞到科力馬河河各處, 但是不在西班牙,義大利或希臘; 廣泛地引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 16.8, range 11 - 23.4 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2058); 最大年齡: 22 年 (Ref. 796)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 14 - 20; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-16; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 10; 脊椎骨: 39 - 42. Diagnosed from other species of Percidae in Europe by having the following unique characters: pelvic and anal fins yellow to red; posterior part of first dorsal fin with dark blotch; and flank with 5-8 bold dark bars, usually Y-shaped. Differs further by the combination of the following features: two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other; and 56-77 scales along lateral line (Ref. 59043). Body greenish-yellow; 5-9 transverse black bands on the sides; first dorsal fin gray, black spot at the tip; second dorsal greenish-yellow; pectorals yellow; other fins red. First dorsal fin markedly higher than the second. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 2058).
身體黃綠色的; 5- 側邊上的 9條橫跨的黑色條紋; 在頂端的第一背鰭灰色又黑色的斑點; 第二背鰭黃綠色的; 胸鰭黃色; 其他的鰭紅色。 第一背鰭顯著地比第二個更高。 尾鰭邊緣微凹的.(參考文獻 2058)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits a very wide range of habitats from estuarine lagoons, lakes of all types to medium-sized streams. Feeding larvae occur in open water. This is an opportunistic diurnal feeder which preys mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. Larvae and small juveniles usually feed on planktonic invertebrates. During first summer, many juveniles move near shores to feed on benthic prey. Often feeds on fishes at about 12 cm SL. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males attain first sexual maturity at 1-2 years and females at 2-4 years of age. Spawns in February-July (Ref. 59043). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Its flesh is excellent and not so bony. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). May be captured with natural or artificial bait (Ref. 30578).

成魚出現在緩慢流動的河,深的湖泊與池塘; 避開寒冷, 快速流動的水但是可能刺入但是在如此的水域中不繁殖。 通常發現說謊接近或被在水在障礙中。 發現於波羅的海的一些半鹹淡水域.。 (參考文獻 9988,44894) 普遍的在哪裡有豐富的水生植物.(參考文獻 44894) 一個掠食性的種, 稚魚吃浮游動物, 底部無脊椎的動物相與其他的鯛科魚苗雖然成魚吃無脊椎動物和魚, 主要地 stickle-backs ,棲木, roach 魚與條魚類.(參考文獻 6465,44894) 在春天產卵。 卵團對其他的魚是不適口的而且因此被保護。 卵在 1-3個星期中孵化,而且幼魚在著手進行一個獨居性的生存之前為一些時間形成魚群。 (參考文獻 44894) 在長的白色緞帶 (向上到 1 公尺) 聚集的卵被發現水下物體之上。 (參考文獻 41678) 飲食的偏愛已經創造在相信這種不利地影響原生魚包括默里鱈魚, Macquarie 棲木的分枝,微小的棲木與彩虹魚的環保主義者之中的恐懼。 (參考文獻 44894) 在澳洲用於商業性地養殖.。 (參考文獻 7306) 它的肉是優良的而不是如此多骨。 生鮮使用與冷凍; 吃油鍋炸與燒烤的.(參考文獻 9988) 可能是用自然或人造的誘餌捕獲。 (參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

During breeding, males arrive at the spawning area ahead of the females. One or two of these males chases a ripe female as soon as it arrives in the area (polyandry) (Ref. 6258). The queue of males maybe longer composed of about 15 to 25 individuals, but only two prod their snouts against the female's belly (Ref. 205). After rounds of curved course through the interlacing branches near the surface (Ref. 205), males fertilize the egg ribbon as the female lays them over weeds or other submerged objects (Ref. 6258). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Eggs hatch in about 8 to 16 days at normal temperatures (Ref. 6258). Males mature at 2-3 years and females at 4 years. Spawning, in the Northern hemisphere, happens in spring in waters with temperatures between 7-8°C. Eggs are laid in sticky strings becoming fixed to aquatic plants and rocks. Incubation lasts about 1- 8 days at 1- 3°. Egg size 2.0-2.5mm, larval length at hatching 5mm.在歐洲與西伯利亞到科力馬河河各處, 但是不在西班牙,義大利或希臘; 廣泛地引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00839 - 0.01192), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-4; tmax=22; Fecundity=13,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.