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Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758

European perch
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Perca fluviatilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Perca fluviatilis
Picture by McDowall, R.M.

Classification / Names Tên thường gặp | Các synonym ( Các tên trùng) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Perca: Greek, perke = perch, a fish without identificaction (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Sinh thái học

; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; di cư biển sông (để đẻ trứng) (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9988), usually 3 - 4 m (Ref. 55947).   Temperate; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 74°N - 38°N, 91°W - 168°E

Sự phân bố Các nước | Các khu vực của FAO | Các hệ sinh thái | Những lần xuất hiện | Point map | Những chỉ dẫn | Faunafri

Eurasia: throughout Europe to northernmost extremity of Scandinavia, except Iberian Peninsula, central Italy, and Adriatic basin; Aegean Sea basin in Matriza and from Struma to Aliakmon drainages; Aral Sea basin; Siberia in rivers draining the Arctic Ocean eastward to Kolyma. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age

Maturity: Lm 16.8, range 11 - 23.4 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2058); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 22 các năm (Ref. 796)

Short description Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học

Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 14 - 20; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 13-16; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 2; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 7 - 10; Động vật có xương sống: 39 - 42. Diagnosed from other species of Percidae in Europe by having the following unique characters: pelvic and anal fins yellow to red; posterior part of first dorsal fin with dark blotch; and flank with 5-8 bold dark bars, usually Y-shaped. Differs further by the combination of the following features: two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other; and 56-77 scales along lateral line (Ref. 59043). Body greenish-yellow; 5-9 transverse black bands on the sides; first dorsal fin gray, black spot at the tip; second dorsal greenish-yellow; pectorals yellow; other fins red. First dorsal fin markedly higher than the second. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 2058).

Sinh học     Tự điển (thí dụ epibenthic)

Inhabits a very wide range of habitats from estuarine lagoons, lakes of all types to medium-sized streams. Feeding larvae occur in open water. This is an opportunistic diurnal feeder which preys mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. Larvae and small juveniles usually feed on planktonic invertebrates. During first summer, many juveniles move near shores to feed on benthic prey. Often feeds on fishes at about 12 cm SL. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males attain first sexual maturity at 1-2 years and females at 2-4 years of age. Spawns in February-July (Ref. 59043). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Its flesh is excellent and not so bony. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). May be captured with natural or artificial bait (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng

During breeding, males arrive at the spawning area ahead of the females. One or two of these males chases a ripe female as soon as it arrives in the area (polyandry) (Ref. 6258). The queue of males maybe longer composed of about 15 to 25 individuals, but only two prod their snouts against the female's belly (Ref. 205). After rounds of curved course through the interlacing branches near the surface (Ref. 205), males fertilize the egg ribbon as the female lays them over weeds or other submerged objects (Ref. 6258). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Eggs hatch in about 8 to 16 days at normal temperatures (Ref. 6258). Males mature at 2-3 years and females at 4 years. Spawning, in the Northern hemisphere, happens in spring in waters with temperatures between 7-8°C. Eggs are laid in sticky strings becoming fixed to aquatic plants and rocks. Incubation lasts about 1- 8 days at 1- 3°. Egg size 2.0-2.5mm, larval length at hatching 5mm.

Main reference Upload your references | Các tài liệu tham khảo | Người điều phối | Người cộng tác

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest





Human uses

Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng
FAO(Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Sản xuất; Các nghề cá: Sản xuất, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Biển chung quanh ta

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00839 - 0.01192), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 69278):  thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 4.5 - 14 năm (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-4; tmax=22; Fecundity=13,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.