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Gambusia holbrooki Girard, 1859

Eastern mosquitofish
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Image of Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern mosquitofish)
Gambusia holbrooki
Female picture by Delgado Saez, J.A.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae (Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Gambusia: Gambusia: From the Cuban term, Gambusino, which means "nothing", usually in the context of a joke or a farce. Fishing for gambusinos = when one catches nothing (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Girard.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; Água doce; estuarina bentopelágico; pH range: 6.0 - 8.8; dH range: ? - 40; potamódromo (Ref. 51243).   Subtropical; 15°C - 35°C (Ref. 13371); 40°N - 31°N, 89°W - 74°W

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries. North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Established throughout southern Europe (Ref. 59043). Introduced for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217).

Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.7 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 59105); 8.0 cm TL (female)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais (total): 7; Espinhos anais 1; Raios anais : 9

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults occur in standing to slow-flowing water, mostly in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of steams (Ref. 5723), typically seen shoaling at the edges (Ref. 44894). They also frequent brackish water (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on small terrestrial insects usually in the drift and amongst aquatic plants, actively selecting very small prey (Ref. 6154). Also observed to take in mosquito larvae (Ref. 41168). Introduced worldwide. Introductions to Europe have seriously threatened many endemic species (Ref. 59043). It is now widely accepted that their effect has been minimal and even may have exacerbated the problem due to their voracious appetite for natural invertebrate predators of mosquito larvae (Ref. 44894).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Matures at 4-6 weeks; 3 generations can be produced in one year. Gestation lasts 3-4 weeks. Brood may reach up to 354 young, but is generally around 40-60 (Ref. 1672, 59043).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 06 February 2012

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Potential pest (Ref. 12257)





Uso pelos humanos

Aquário: Espécies comerciais
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00751 - 0.01214), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (tm<1; multiple spawning per year).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .