Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Gambusia: Gambusia: From the Cuban term, Gambusino, which means "nothing", usually in the context of a joke or a farce. Fishing for gambusinos = when one catches nothing (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; Água doce; estuarina bentopelágico; pH range: 6.0 - 8.8; dH range: ? - 40; potamódromo (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 15°C - 35°C (Ref. 13371); 40°N - 31°N, 89°W - 74°W
Introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries. North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Established throughout southern Europe (Ref. 59043). Introduced for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217).
Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.7 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 59105); 8.0 cm TL (female)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais (total): 7; Espinhos anais 1; Raios anais : 9
Adults occur in standing to slow-flowing water, mostly in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of steams (Ref. 5723), typically seen shoaling at the edges (Ref. 44894). They also frequent brackish water (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on small terrestrial insects usually in the drift and amongst aquatic plants, actively selecting very small prey (Ref. 6154). Also observed to take in mosquito larvae (Ref. 41168). Introduced worldwide. Introductions to Europe have seriously threatened many endemic species (Ref. 59043). It is now widely accepted that their effect has been minimal and even may have exacerbated the problem due to their voracious appetite for natural invertebrate predators of mosquito larvae (Ref. 44894).
Matures at 4-6 weeks; 3 generations can be produced in one year. Gestation lasts 3-4 weeks. Brood may reach up to 354 young, but is generally around 40-60 (Ref. 1672, 59043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para os humanos
Potential pest (Ref. 12257)
Uso pelos humanos
Aquário: Espécies comerciais
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequências alélicasHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoConversão de massa
ColaboradoresFotosStamps, Coins Misc.SonsCiguateraVelocidadeTipo de nataçãoÁrea branquialOtólitosCérebrosVisão
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00751 - 0.01214), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (tm<1; multiple spawning per year).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .