Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Poeciliidae
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Etymology: Gambusia: Gambusia: From the Cuban term, Gambusino, which means "nothing", usually in the context of a joke or a farce. Fishing for gambusinos = when one catches nothing (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; Água doce; estuarina bentopelágico; pH range: 6.0 - 8.8; dH range: ? - 40; potamódromo (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 15°C - 35°C (Ref. 13371); 40°N - 31°N, 89°W - 74°W
Introduced worldwide in tropical and subtropical countries. North America: Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainages from New Jersey south to Alabama in USA (Ref. 5723). Established throughout southern Europe (Ref. 59043). Introduced for mosquito control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitoes, and negative to perhaps neutral impact on native fishes (Ref. 12217).
Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.7 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 59105); 8.0 cm TL (female)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 1; Raios dorsais moles (total): 7; Espinhos anais 1; Raios anais moles: 9
Adults occur in standing to slow-flowing water, mostly in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of steams (Ref. 5723), typically seen shoaling at the edges (Ref. 44894). They also frequent brackish water (Ref. 5723). Adults feed on small terrestrial insects usually in the drift and amongst aquatic plants, actively selecting very small prey (Ref. 6154). Also observed to take in mosquito larvae (Ref. 41168). Introduced worldwide. Introductions to Europe have seriously threatened many endemic species (Ref. 59043). It is now widely accepted that their effect has been minimal and even may have exacerbated the problem due to their voracious appetite for natural invertebrate predators of mosquito larvae (Ref. 44894).
Matures at 4-6 weeks; 3 generations can be produced in one year. Gestation lasts 3-4 weeks. Brood may reach up to 354 young, but is generally around 40-60 (Ref. 1672, 59043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Potential pest (Ref. 12257)
Aquário: Espécies comerciais
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoMass conversion
ColaboradoresFotografiasStamps, Coins Misc.SonsCiguateraVelocidadeTipo de nataçãoÁrea branquialOutras referênciasCérebrosVisão
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00751 - 0.01214), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (tm<1; multiple spawning per year).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .