分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E
Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 5.2, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 556); 最大記録サイズ: 11 年 (Ref. 59043)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 3; 背鰭 (合計): 6-8; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 6 - 8; 脊つい: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
Potential pest (Ref. 13686)
水産業: 少数商業の; 水族館・水槽: 商業; 餌: usually
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00630 - 0.01260), b=3.07 (2.97 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .