Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leucaspius: Greek, leukaspis, leukaspidis = armed with a white shield (Ref. 45335); delineatus: Leucaspius = white Aspius; delineatus = without lateral line. More on author: Heckel.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Tầng nổi; pH range: 6.0 - 10.0; dH range: ? - 15; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 1 m (Ref. 27368). Temperate; 2°C - 32°C (Ref. 41592); 64°N - 38°N, 1°E - 60°E
Europe and Asia: From Lower Rhine and northern Germany eastward to southern Baltic basin; Black Se basin south to Rioni drainage, northern and western Caspian basin (south to Kura drainage); Aegean Sea basin (from Maritsa to Nestos). Absent in Italy, Adriatic basin, Great Britain and Scandinavia (except southernmost Sweden). Widely introduced in France, upper Rhine drainage and locally in Great Britain and Swiitzerland. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 59043); common length : 6.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 2.00 các năm (Ref. 556)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 2 - 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 7-9; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 10 - 13; Động vật có xương sống: 36 - 42. Diagnosed from other cyprinids in central and eastern Europe by having incomplete lateral line with about 8-12 pored scales, keel covered by scales between pelvic origin and anus, mouth superior, and 11-13½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). A small fish with large silvery scales and an inconspicuous intense silvery band along each side. Lateral line incomplete, sometimes absent, with perforated scales. Anal fin longer than dorsal fin. Mouth turns upwards. The lower edge of the body between the pelvic fins and the vent forms a sharp keel. The scales are very loosely attached and fall away if the fish is handled. Also Ref. 40476.
Inhabits lowland riverine habitats especially oxbows and other water bodies only connected to rivers during floods. Often encountered in ponds, steppe lakes and small water bodies not connected to rivers (Ref. 59043). Occurs in large schools which are most numerous in autumn. Found between weeds in shallow pools and creeks, shallow lakes, peat and clay excavations and canals. It is exposed to the stormy flow of water (in spring, autumn and winter), but usually choose quite places like small bays, plots behind bottom stones extending out of water and concrete foundations of bridges. In autumn, the schools of fish keep to the surface and rarely go to the pelagic zone. Towards winter, the schools break up and the number of fish per unit of river square decreases rapidly (Ref. 27674); they spend the winter in deeper waters (Ref. 41592). Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton and on flying insects (Ref. 27368). Spawns among vegetation (Ref. 30578). Aquarium keeping: at least 10 individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539). Scales were utilized for production of Essence d'Orient, which was used for coating artificial pearls. Locally threatened due to draining of wetlands. Reaches up to about 9 cm SL (Ref. 59043).
Territorial males clean the spawning sites and guard the eggs which are attached in strings around roots, reeds, aquatic vegetation or any material drifting on the water surface (Ref. 59043). When males tend the clutch, which is usually located on the stem of a water plant, they provide the clutch with fresh water by nudging the water plant. In addition, they spread an anti-bacterial fluid over the eggs (Ref. 1672). If possible, some fish will enter streams for spawning.
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: không ích lợi (thú vị); Bể nuôi cá: Bể cá công cộng
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00412 - 0.01217), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.248; tmax=2.0; Fec=500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .