Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas)
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina pelágico(a,os,as); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 50 m (Ref. 82332). Tropical; 31°N - 25°S, 30°E - 172°W (Ref. 189)
Indo-Pacific: widespread in Indian Ocean, including Red Sea, coasts of East Africa to Madagascar and Mauritius, Sri Lanka and Andaman Islands, but no Indian specimens known (Ref. 189); and in western central Pacific, including Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, northern and eastern coasts of Australia, and eastward to Tonga (Ref. 189). No records are known from South China Sea or to the north, but the Ogasawara, Bonin Islands, record seems reliable (Ref. 189). Its occurrence in Thailand (Ref. 1632) needs confirmation.
Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 54980); common length : 10.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5450)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 14-16; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 29 - 34. Diagnosis: Body not strongly compressed, belly rounded before pelvic fins, with 4-9 pre-pelvic and 7-10 post-pelvic scutes, the pre-pelvic scutes ending below the pectoral fin base or behind it; in total 12-18 keeled scutes; maxilla short, reaching to just beyond front border of pre-operculum, tip pointed; gillrakers 18 to 26 (Ref. 189). It closely resembles Thryssa encrasicholoides, which has 1 or 2 small but armless keeled scutes immediately behind the isthmus, also maxilla tip blunter; other species of Thryssa have a complete series of pre-pelvic scutes from isthmus to pelvic fin base; Stolephorus species lack post-pelvic scutes; and Lycothrissa has canine teeth (Ref. 189).
Marine, pelagic and presumably schooling (Ref. 189, 1602, 5213), at depths of 0-50m (Ref. 82332). Found mostly inshore in bays, lagoons, harbours, mangrove pools and estuaries, thus apparently able to tolerate lowered salinities (Ref. 189, 30573). It contributes to general clupeoid catches, but no special fishery (Ref. 189). Used as a baitfish in Pacific Ocean (Ref. 189).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: pouco comercial; isco: usually
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoMass conversion
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.9 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1158 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00356 - 0.01119), b=3.20 (3.05 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.26 se; based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Elevada, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população menor que 15 meses (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .