Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 1 - 30 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 32°N - 34°S, 27°E - 170°W
Indo-West Pacific: Reported from Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), East Africa south to the Chalumna River, South Africa (Ref. 11228) and east to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Replaced by closely related Sufflamen albicaudatus in the Red Sea (Ref. 37816).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 30573)
Spine dorsali (totale): 3; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 26-28; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 23 - 26. Juveniles dark brown above, white below (Ref. 1602). Adult variable in color; the bar running through the pectoral base can either be yellow or black, and some individuals may be largely yellowish posteriorly (Ref. 1602).
Inhabit coastal to outer reefs. Habitats from silty lagoons to pristine outer reef walls (Ref. 48637). Occur in shallow lagoon and seaward reefs. Solitary and territorial. Feed on a wide variety of invertebrates. Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Monogamous (Ref. 52884).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Male defends a defined territory, within which a female resides. On the day prior to spawning, female pushes her snout into the sandy bottom repeatedly and removes small stones and pieces of coral at several sites. Adhesive eggs are deposited on the sandy bottoms or in a small cavity of the reef covered with sand. Female fans the eggs and defends the nest, while male patrols around female (Ref. 8603). Females are territorial, solely tending and guarding the eggs (Ref. 116451). Males exhibit polygyny (Ref. 116451).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3050 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02089 (0.01221 - 0.03575), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .