Rhinobatos penggali, Indonesian shovelnose ray

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Rhinobatos penggali Last, White & Fahmi, 2006

Indonesian shovelnose ray
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drawing shows typical species in Rhinobatidae.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes (Shovelnose rays) > Rhinobatidae (Guitarfishes)
Etymology: Rhinobatos: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek, batis, -idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335);  penggali: Name from the Indonesian word 'penggali', meaning shovel; refers to the common name used to describe the shape of the head in this groups of rays.  More on authors: Last, White & Fahmi.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien benthopelagisch.   Tropical; 8°S - 10°S, 105°E - 116°E (Ref. 114953)

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Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to central Indonesia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?, range 75 - 96 cm
Max length : 86.4 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 72461); 99.2 cm TL (female)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

This species is distinguished by the following set of adult characters: disc broadly wedge-shaped, width 36-37% TL, length less than 1.3 (1.20-1.27) times width; snout moderately elongate, length 3-3.2 times interspiracular distance, 4-4.5 times interorbital width; orbit medium-sized, 1.4-1.6 times spiracle length; nostrils weakly oblique, length 1.3-1.4 times internarial distance; preoral length 6.9-7.1 times internarial distance; anterior nasal flaps penetrating slightly into internarial space, well separated at their insertion; posterior nasal flaps broad; two spiracular folds, outermost fold about twice height of inner fold; ridges of rostral cartilage almost parallel, converging slightly anteriorly, not constricted medially; anterior cartilage narrow, subtruncate to bilobed posteriorly; distance between fifth gill slits 2.6-3 times in ventral head length; prebranchial sensory pore patch distinct, extending to first gill slit; postscapular sensory canal obscure, exposed lateral pores absent, not grooved; thorn patches on supraorbit, scapular region, dorsal midline, small but distinct; pelvic-fin inner margin slightly shorter than its base; interdorsal distance more than 2.5 (2.7-2.9) times first dorsal-fin base; dorsal caudal margin 2.1-2.6 times preventral margin; upper teeth in 75-83 rows; post-synarcual centra 166-170; nasal lamellae more than 50 (53-57); dorsal fin obviously bicolored; dorsal disc with white spots (sometimes faint) (Ref. 72461).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Demersal inshore on inner insular shelf. Feeds on small crustaceans and probably small bony fishes. Males mature at 70-72 cm TL, females at 75 cm TL. Females have litters of 4-13 pups (Ref. 114953). Caught by fisherman using small demersal gill and trammel nets, and small demersal longlines (Ref. 72461).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : McEachran, John | Medewerkers

Last, P.R., W.T. White and Fahmi, 2006. Rhinobatos jimbaranensis and R. penggali, two new shovelnose rays (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) from eastern Indonesia. Cybium 30(3):261-271. (Ref. 72461)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Kwetsbaar, zie IUCN Rode Lijst (VU) (A2cd+3cd+4cd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00153 - 0.00594), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .