This page is sponsored by
FishBase Consortium Member

Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen, 1987

Frostback rockcod
Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus bilobatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Epinephelus bilobatus (Frostback rockcod)
Epinephelus bilobatus
Picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Randall & Allen.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 4 - 50 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 16°S - 22°S, 116°E - 124°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Eastern Indian Ocean: known only from Western Australia. Was illustrated in color as Epinephelus maculatus by Allen (1985, Ref. 1677) and Sainsbury et al. (1985, Ref. 3131). This species have been much confused with other 'reticulated groupers' in literature, and many museum specimens have been misidentified.

Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 11; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 17-18; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 8. Characterized by: greyish-brown color overall with hexagonal brown spots; white strip at back; dorsal fin base with 2-3 dark bilobed spots; body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales anterodorsally on thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.3 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.8-2.1 in head length (Ref. 90102); preopercle subangular, with serrae at the angle slightly enlarged; opercular spines inconspicuous; straight or slightly concave upper edge of operculum; nostrils subequal in small fish, but posterior nostril diameter about twice of that of anterior nostril in a fish of 27 cm SL; maxilla reaches below rear half of eye; 2 rows of small teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

No fishery information is available. Found on coral reefs or rocky bottom (Ref. 089707). No published information on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaboratori

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

Download XML

Fonti Internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, ricerca) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 26.4 - 28, mean 26.8 (based on 22 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .