Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Leucoraja: Greek, leykos = white + Latin, raja = a fish, Raja sp. (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas batidemersal; intervalo de profundidade 30 - 550 m (Ref. 4426). Deep-water; 72°N - 27°N, 24°W - 34°E
Eastern Atlantic: Murmansk in Russia, Norway, southern Iceland, the Faroes, northern North Sea and Skagerrak to northern Morocco, including western Mediterranean and the Madeira Islands.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?, range 75 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 35388); 111.0 cm TL (female)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 0. Snout pronounced, rather pointed; disc rhomboid, with angled outer corners upper surface entirely spinulose, underside prickly on large areas; about 8 thorns usually in a complete row around inner margin of eye, small thorns on scapular, generally a row of about 50 thorns on each side of midline from shoulder to first dorsal fin; upper surface plain ashy-grey, underside white (Ref. 3167).
Found in relatively cold coastal waters and on upper parts of continental slopes (Ref. 3167). Most common at depths of around 200 m, but deeper in southern areas (Ref. 3167). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals, probably preferring fish (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 7.5-9.9 cm long and 4.5-4.7 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Maximum length for female is 111 cm (Ref. 41333).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: pouco comercial
Idade/TamanhoCrescimentoComprimento-pesoComprimento-comprimentoFrequência de comprimentoMorfometriaMorfologiaLarvasDinâmica larvarRecrutamentoAbundância
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoMass conversion
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.8 - 14.5, mean 9.5 (based on 370 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00280 - 0.01185), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (Assuming tm>5).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .