Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays)
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 360 m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical; 45°N - 52°S, 122°W - 180°E
Western Atlantic: Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: off France southward and around the coast of southern Africa to central Natal, South Africa (Ref. 5578), including the Mediterranean. Possibly two separate populations in southern Africa (Ref. 3209). Western Pacific: Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to the Gulf of California in Mexico and Peru.
Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm 230.0, range 245 - 240 cm
Max length : 325 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 2334); peso máx. publicado: 304.6 kg (Ref. 40637); idade máx. registrada: 30 anos (Ref. 3209)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais : 0. A large shark to with a bluntly pointed, broad snout, narrow, bent cusps on the upper teeth, and with no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Grey to bronzy in color, white below (Ref. 5578); fins mostly plain except for dusky tips on pelvic fins, as well as dusky to black tips and rear edges on pectoral fins (Ref. 9997).
A coastal and offshore shark (Ref. 9997) found along continental margins in most tropical and temperate seas. Occasionally enters large coastal bays and inshore areas (Ref. 6390). Occasionally found near the bottom (Ref. 6808). Migratory in the northern part of its range, moving northward in spring and summer and southward in autumn and winter (Ref. 244). Feeds on pelagic and bottom bony fishes, cephalopods, and small sharks and rays (Ref. 5578). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Undoubtedly utilized for human consumption where it occurs (Ref. 244). Implicated in shark attacks on people (Ref. 9997).
Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter contains 7 to 20 pups (Ref. 6871, 6390). Young born at 59 - 70 cm TL (Ref. 6390). Pupping may occur at any time of the year but there is a peak in births in summer (Ref. 6390). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Ameaça para os humanos
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Uso pelos humanos
Pescarias: pouco comercial; peixe esportivo: sim
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequências alélicasHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoConversão de massa
Fontes da internet
Estimativas de algumas propriedades baseadas em modelos
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.6 - 23.8, mean 17.4 (based on 797 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00232 - 0.00941), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 69278
): Muito baixo(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população maior que 14 anos (K=0.04; tm=5-20; tmax=30; Fec=7).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (87 of 100) .