分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 593). 溫帶
Europe and Asia: some upper tributaries of Pechora and Kama (with tributaries Vyatka, Belaya, Vishera, Chusovaya) in Volga drainage; Siberia from Ob' to Yana drainages; Amur and some adjacent drainages. Prior to the impoundment of Kama, used to enter Volga and to reach downriver to Samara.
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大體重: 105.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 55 年 (Ref. 56502)
Small cross-shaped dark spots on head and sides of body; maxilla reaching backward behind rear edge of eyes; scales oval, minute without radial grooves and rings extremely clear; adipose fin well-developed; pyloric caecum 205-219 (Ref. 45563). Distinguished from other species of Salmonidae in central and eastern Europe by the combination of the following characters: teeth on vomer and palatine in a continuous, horse-shoe-shaped band; 173-288 scales in midlateral row (107-164 pored scales); small round dark spots on head and dark x-shaped or/and half-moon-shaped spots on body; head long (22-25% SL) and dorsally flattened; very long jaws, maxilla length 42-50% HL; in adults, maxilla reaching posterior margin of eye; shallow cylindrical body; caudal deeply emarginate, reddish in adults; large size in undisturbed areas; and 9-18 gill rakers, usually 11-13 (Ref. 59043).
在頭部與身體側邊上的小的十字形深色的斑點; 顎骨達到向後的在後眼睛後緣; 鱗片橢圓形, 細小的沒有放射狀的凹槽與環非常清澈; 脂鰭發展良好的; 幽門的盲腸 205-219.
Adults inhabit piedmont and montane cold rivers with high oxygen concentrations. They prefer to live in deeper holes with slow current for periods of reduced activity (day time, winter), but also lower reaches, estuaries, cold lakes and reservoirs. Both juveniles and adults are territorial. Adults frequently occur within their own restricted territory (deep holes below rapids and waterfalls, confluence of small tributaries, below bridge pillar or large rocks, bank excavations), which they abandon only foraging and spawning. Young individuals do not maintain permanent territory. Juveniles occur in fast-flowing waters, prey on drifting invertebrates and shift to fish diet after 1-3 years. Adults feed on fishes and terrestrial vertebrates. They breed in shallow places with fast current on pebble bottom, immediately downstream of large deep pools, often in small river tributaries. Usually undertake upriver migration for spawning in the upper reaches of tributaries. Can overcome quite high obstacles while migrating to spawning sites. Eggs, 5-6 mm in diameter, hatch after 28-38 days. Alevins stay in gravel until yolk sac is absorbed after 10-15 days while young first remain near spawning site, then move downstream. Larger immature individuals of 2-4 years of age live in same sites as adults but separately below groups of adults or in smaller holes. Life span reaches up to about 20 years (Ref. 59043). Threatened due to habitat loss, pollution and over harvesting (Ref. 58490), including angling tourism (Ref. 59043).
棲息於河川與湖泊。 偏愛快速流動的河的一個專門河川的種是; 從不下降到海洋。 在春天，它溯河而且進入水淺的小溪。 五月時產卵。 (參考文獻 593) 受威脅的在捕穫, 棲息地損失與污染之上由於.(參考文獻 58490) 給的沒有長度類型但是可能是的體全長。
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Females dig a redd about 1.0-1.5 m in diameter. Eggs, 5-6 mm in diameter, hatch after 28-38 days. Alevins stay in gravel until yolk sac is absorbed after 10-15 days while young first remain near spawning site, then move downstream (Ref. 59043).前蘇聯與亞洲: 裡海與北極圈流域到阿穆爾河。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 實驗的; 游釣魚種: 是的
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00778 - 0.01119), b=3.03 (2.98 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278
): 非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (tm=5; tmax=55; Fec=44,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .