Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 95687), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 42°N - 34°S, 98°W - 23°E
Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA) to Brazil. Also found in Argentina (Ref. 86336). Eastern Atlantic: Madeira Island (Ref. 74541), São Tiago Island (Cape Verde) and Angola (Ref. 7373); Sao Tome Island (Ref. 30488).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6547); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3725); max. published weight: 3.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 12 - 13. grey with longitudinal brassy stripes on body and 2 brassy horizontal bands on head. Opercular membrane slightly pigmented. Each jaw with a regular row of close-set, strong, incisor-like, round-tipped teeth of a peculiar hockey-stick shape, their bases set horizontally, resembling a radially striated bony plate inside mouth (Ref 52729).
Inhabits shallow waters, especially over rocky bottoms in coral reef areas; also among floating Sargassum weeds (Ref. 3725). Feeds on algae including much Sargassum (Ref. 5521). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3725).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.1 - 28.1, mean 27.2 °C (based on 980 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00672 - 0.03410), b=3.03 (2.83 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm>4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.1 [7.0, 27.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.707 [0.404, 1.221] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.146 [0.084, 0.270] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.8 [9.5, 50.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 20.8 [5.0, 78.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.913 [0.581, 1.425] mg/100g (wet weight);