Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Kyphosidae
(Sea chubs) > Kyphosinae
Etymology: Kyphosus: Greek, kyphos = bent (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 95687). Subtropical; 42°N - 34°S, 98°W - 23°E
Western Atlantic: Cape Cod, Massachusetts (USA) to Brazil. Also found in Argentina (Ref. 86336). Eastern Atlantic: Madeira Island (Ref. 74541), São Tiago Island (Cape Verde) and Angola (Ref. 7373); Sao Tome Island (Ref. 30488).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6547); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3725); max. published weight: 3.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
soft rays: 12 - 13. grey with longitudinal brassy stripes on body and 2 brassy horizontal bands on head. Opercular membrane slightly pigmented. Each jaw with a regular row of close-set, strong, incisor-like, round-tipped teeth of a peculiar hockey-stick shape, their bases set horizontally, resembling a radially striated bony plate inside mouth (Ref 52729).
Inhabits shallow waters, especially over rocky bottoms in coral reef areas; also among floating Sargassum weeds (Ref. 3725). Feeds on algae including much Sargassum (Ref. 5521). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3725).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.1 - 28.1, mean 27.2 (based on 980 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00681 - 0.03364), b=3.03 (2.83 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm>4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .