Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 25 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 34°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida and the Antilles to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 850.00 g (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 9. Maxilla reaching to below center of eye; soft portion of dorsal fin relatively high; silvery gray with dark stripes on upper half of body, the region between the upper most stripe and the dorsal fin yellow (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits clear reefs (Ref. 9710). Forms dense schools (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans and sea urchins (Ref. 3798). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.2 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 676 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00922 - 0.02724), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.34 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41 [23, 72] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.535 [0.307, 1.009] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.0, 21.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.119 [0.061, 0.198] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.3 [17.8, 59.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.4 [16.5, 146.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.59, 1.56] mg/100g (wet weight);