Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 10 m (Ref. 7251), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, Bay of Campeche, Greater Antilles and the Virgin Islands. Including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 7 - 8. A distinctive bluish grey in life, with scattered dark spots on back and upper sides. Longitudinal stripes below lateral line. Mouth subterminal, slightly oblique. Chin without barbel but with 5 mental pores. Preopercle margin finely serrate without strong spines. Gas bladder with 2 chambers; anterior one yoke-shaped, without appendages, posterior chamber, carrot-shaped. Lapillus enlarged, more than half size of sagitta (Ref 51721).
Mostly restricted to clear, sheltered, shore waters with luxuriant plant growth, usually from 3-10 m depth. Feeds mainly on crustaceans.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.2, mean 27.6 °C (based on 488 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00553 - 0.02735), b=3.06 (2.87 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .