Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated, usually ? - 3 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 21°C - 27°C (Ref. 27115); 30°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30874)
Inhabits shallow sandy areas among seagrass (Ref. 1602) and in silty lagoons amongst rubble (Ref. 30404). Lives in burrows with alpheid shrimp species with dark bands on back (Ref. 30404). Feeds on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 89972).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.3, mean 28.2 (based on 2256 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00267 - 0.01297), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.32 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .