Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335). More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 18 - 55 m (Ref. 37816), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-Pacific. Replaced by Apogon coccineus from the Red Sea to Persian Gulf and by Apogon erythrinus in the Hawaiian Islands (Ref. 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 4.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: dorsal-fin rays VI-I, 9; anal-fin rays II,8; pectoral fin rays 13; pelvic fin rays I,5; pored lateral line scales 24; predorsal scales 5-6; large scale between first dorsal fin and lateral line 1; circumpeduncular scales 12; total gill rakers 15-16, developed gill rakers 8-9; full scale between first dorsal fin and lateral line 1, often with smaller second scale (Ref. 93839). Resembles A. unicolor but distinguished by fewer spines in the 1st dorsal fin (6 against 7), large scales, and fewer lateral line scales (23 against 25). Body color uniformly dark reddish, each scale mottled with brown. Attains 10 cm TL. Further characterized by having a semi-transparent red color, with a thin, dark red stripe on mid-lateral surface of the body (Ref. 93839) greatest depth of body 2.7-3.0 in SL (Ref. 90102).
Found on inshore reefs, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 37816). Nocturnal species (Ref. 7300). Feeds on small benthic crustaceans (Ref. 37816). Maximum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 28.5, mean 27 °C (based on 152 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 243 [125, 506] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.16 [0.69, 2.31] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.181 [0.094, 0.345] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.8 [10.0, 51.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 73.3 [20.8, 273.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.83 [1.15, 2.97] mg/100g (wet weight);