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Pseudotropheus livingstonii (Boulenger, 1899)

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Pseudotropheus livingstonii
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Pseudotropheus: In honour of Hans J. Mayland, German ictiologist (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Boulenger.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 8.0 - 9.0; dH range: 12 - 20; depth range 2 - 50 m.   Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 13°S - 15°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: Lake Malawi (Ref. 119458), common in the southeastern and southwestern arms of the lake (Ref. 5684).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5684)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 17 - 19; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: This species is distinguished from all other members in Pseudotropheus, except P. crabro, P. demasoni, and P. saulosi, by the presence of five or fewer vertical bars below the dorsal fin; most Pseudotropheus species either have no bars or have greater than five below the dorsal fin (Ref. 119458). It is distinguished from P. crabro, P. demasoni, and P. saulosi by a pale yellow to hyaline dorsal fin vs. dorsal fin heavily pigmented with black (Ref. 119458).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Lives mainly over sand where it finds refuge in the empty shells of the gastropod, Lanistes nyassanus. Also found in intermediate habitats and rarely over rocks. Usually territorial over gastropod shells. When found away from its shell, it is usually solitary or in small groups of less than 5 individuals. Feeds from sand, taking epipelic algae (Ref. 6256).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Females are mouthbrooders.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Stauffer, J.R. Jr., A.F. Konings and T.M. Ryan, 2016. Redescription of Pseudotropheus livingstonii and Pseudotropheus elegans from Lake Malawi, Africa. Zootaxa 4154(2):169-178. (Ref. 119458)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 June 2018

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00677 - 0.03085), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.