Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Anotopterus: Greek, a = without + Greek, noton = back + Greek, pteron = fin (Ref. 45335); pharao: pharao because of its resemblance to Egyptian kings (Ref. 6885).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 5100 m (Ref. 58018). Deep-water; 66°N - 27°S, 69°W - 1°W (Ref. 31260)
North Atlantic: from Canada (Ref. 5951), Greenland and Davis Strait, to Madeira I. and Canary Is. (Ref. 31260).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 96.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31260)
soft rays: 12 - 15;
Vertebrae: 77 - 81. In adults, head depth 23.2-26.8% of lower jaw length. Postorbital area 5.5-7.6% SL or 28.8-33.3% (less than 3 times smaller than HL). Rear edge of gill cover overlaps with the middle of the 4th vertebrae. Postadipose distance 6-7.4% SL (Ref. 31260).
Epimesopelagic species. Juveniles and fry observed exclusively within the central-circle current and its periphery; large adults caught mainly in boreal and sub-arctic waters. Feeds mainly on small and moderate-sized mesopelagic fishes; the largest Paralepis coregonoides and Arctozenus risso, had body length of 28-30 cm; a specimen caught from the southern region of Reykjanes Ridge had 12 individuals of Sebastes mentella ranging from 4.5-5 cm. Stomachs of those caught in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have small squids (Ref. 31260).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kukuev, E.I., 1998. Systematics and distribution in the world ocean of daggertooth fishes of the genus Anotopterus (Anotopteridae, Aulopiformes). J. Ichthyol. 38(9):716-729. (Ref. 31260)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.2 - 8.4, mean 3.9 °C (based on 759 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00224 (0.00089 - 0.00562), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.76 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .