Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Gymnelinae
Etymology: Gymnelus: Gymnelus, derived from Greek, gymn?los (Latinized Greek) = poor, needy (akin to Greek gymnos for destitute (E. Spencer, pers.comm. 09/13)..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 320 m (Ref. 50610). Polar; 84°N - 39°N, 180°W - 28°W
Arctic: Greenland and Canadian Arctic. Northeast Pacific: Bering Sea (Ref. 51665). Replaced by other species in the Arctic seas of Eurasia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 56.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4926)
Inhabits continental shelves, but generally living in shallower water (Ref. 11954); usually live over sand and muddy bottoms among seaweeds (Ref. 5951). Benthic; feeds on crustaceans, worms and clams (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Anderson, M.E., 1994. Systematics and osteology of the Zoarcidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. 60:120 p. (Ref. 11954)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.5 - 4.8, mean -0.5 (based on 1722 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00145 - 0.00912), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .