Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 1672); 35°N - 27°N
North America: USA from Cape Fear River drainage in North Carolina to Mobile Bay in Alabama; south in Florida to northern edge of Everglades.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 2.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193)
Occurs in swamps, heavily vegetated sloughs and small sluggish streams, usually over mud. Feeds on worms and crustaceans (Ref. 7020). Oviparous, eggs are deposited in aquatic vegetation, preferably on strands of Ceratophyllum sp. when available (Ref. 58020).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male guards the eggs (Ref. 58020). Produces 40-60 eggs.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00209 - 0.01444), b=3.14 (2.91 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .