Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 128 m (Ref. 26938). Tropical; 43°N - 7°N
Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26340) to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626)
Red to dusky red with a round black spot beneath rear of second dorsal fin and a broad blackish saddle-like bar on caudal peduncle.
Commonly found along sea walls and pilings, in harbors, and coral reefs. A nocturnal species, it remains hidden in cracks and crevices during the day (Ref. 9626). Reaches depths of more than 100 m (Ref. 9626). Males with eggs have been spotted in Bahamas in June and July (Ref. 26938). Most common cardinalfish in the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Spawning may occur throughout the year (Ref. 39366). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26 °C (based on 414 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00549 - 0.01823), b=3.10 (2.95 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 113 [65, 243] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.09 [0.70, 1.68] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.1, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.184 [0.113, 0.297] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.1 [15.7, 55.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 128 [51, 319] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.5 [1.0, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);