Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Echeneis: Greek, echein = to hold + Greek, nays = ship; remora, suckling fish; 1774 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated. Subtropical; 43°N - 4°N, 98°W - 51°W
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts in USA, Bahamas and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs near as well as far from the coast (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 440 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7539 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00108 - 0.00670), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 24.9 [13.8, 47.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.87 [0.52, 1.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.7, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.143 [0.083, 0.247] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.8 [12.3, 45.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 36.4 [11.9, 109.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.728 [0.486, 1.099] mg/100g (wet weight);