Trachurus declivis, Greenback horse mackerel : fisheries, gamefish, bait
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Trachurus declivis (Jenyns, 1841)

Greenback horse mackerel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Trachurus declivis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Trachurus declivis
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Trachurus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Jenyns.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 27 - 460 m (Ref. 27930), usually ? - 300 m (Ref. 9072).   Temperate; ? - 16°C (Ref. 9072); 9°S - 53°S, 112°E - 177°E (Ref. 54926)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Western Australia to New South Wales, including New Zealand. Principal component analysis of morphometric and meristic characters indicates three separate subpopulations in the Great Australian Bight, off New South Wales, and off Tasmania (Ref. 7456).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 31.5, range 23 - 37 cm
Max length : 64.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839); common length : 42.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 9072)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 29-35; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 24 - 29; Vertebrae: 24. Adults are elongate and slightly compressed, and have a primary lateral line with 71-89 scutes, and a secondary lateral line reaching to below dorsal-fin rays 7-9 (Ref. 33616).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are commonly found near the bottom, in midwater and occasionally at the surface (Ref. 9258) in continental shelf waters (Ref. 27930). They form pelagic schools for most of the year but may move close to the sea bed during winter (Ref. 27931). Generally found at less than 300 m water depth with temperature less than 16° C (Ref. 9072). Juveniles inhabit coastal and estuarine waters although they may sometimes be found offshore (Ref. 27930). Adults feed mostly during the day mainly on krill and other planktonic crustaceans, light fish (Sternoptychidae) and lantern fish (Myctophidae) at the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 27933).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Eggs and sperm are released amongst schooling fish, possibly deep in the water column near the edge of the continental shelf. Eggs are distributed between the surface and the thermocline and larvae are carried inshore by currents.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 19 July 2017

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: usually
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.1 - 20.2, mean 14.4 °C (based on 135 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00787 - 0.02013), b=2.96 (2.82 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-4; tmax=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.