Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Plectorhinchinae
Etymology: Plectorhinchus: Greek, plektos = plaited + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 27000). Subtropical; 45°N - 22°S, 25°W - 20°E
Eastern Atlantic: Spain and Portugal to Henties Bay, Namibia (Ref. 11228). Also from the western Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 231) and the Canary Islands (Ref. 5535). Records in eastern Mediterranean are questionable (Ref. 57855, Ref. 113897).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5535); common length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5535); max. published weight: 7.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms. Feeds on zoobenthos and zooplankton (Ref. 5535). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 5535.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Ben-Tuvia, A. and R. McKay, 1986. Haemulidae. p. 858-864. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. volume 2. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 5535)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.1 - 24.4, mean 19 (based on 81 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00833 - 0.01991), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18;).
Prior r = 0.53, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.76, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .