Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pteroscion: Greek, pteron, pteryx = fin + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - 200 m (Ref. 3593), usually - 50 m (Ref. 3593). Tropical; 0°C - ; 46°N - 9°S, 19°W - 15°E (Ref. 56869)
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Namibia (Ref. 27121).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.4  range ? - 16 cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593)
Found in mid-water, over mud and sand bottoms in coastal waters. One of the most abundant sciaenids in shallower waters (Ref. 3593). Feeds on fish, cephalopods, shrimps, and annelids (Ref. 28587).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20 - 28, mean 26.5 °C (based on 186 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00573 - 0.01452), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.709; assuming tm>1 based on growth curve).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 217 [115, 389] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.12 [0.66, 2.13] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.5, 18.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.47 [0.20, 1.03] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.4 [28.1, 124.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.4 [9.6, 79.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.74 [1.14, 2.68] mg/100g (wet weight);